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 Antony and Cleopatra
     In Shakespeare's tragedy/history/Roman play Antony and Cleopatra, 
we are told the story of two passionate and power-hungry lovers. In 
the first two Acts of the play we are introduced to some of the 
problems and dilemmas facing the couple (such as the fact that they 
are entwined in an adulterous relationship, and that both of them are 
forced to show their devotion to Caesar). Along with being introduced 
to Antony and Cleopatra's strange love affair, we are introduced to 
some interesting secondary characters. One of these characters is 
Enobarbus. Enobarbus is a high-ranking soldier in Antony's army who it 
seems is very close to his commander. We know this by the way 
Enobarbus is permitted to speak freely (at least in private) with 
Antony, and often is used as a person to whom Antony confides in. We 
see Antony confiding in Enobarbus in Act I, Scene ii, as Antony 
explains how Cleopatra is "cunning past man's thought" (I.ii.146). In 
reply to this Enobarbus speaks very freely of his view of Cleopatra, 
even if what he says is very positive:

...her passions are made of
nothing but the finest part of pure love. We cannot
call her winds and waters sighs and tears; they are 
greater storms and tempests than almanacs can report.
This cannot be cunning in her; if it be she makes a 
shower of rain as well as Jove.
(I, ii, 147-152)

     After Antony reveals that he has just heard news of his wife's 
death, we are once again offered an example of Enobarbus' freedom to 
speak his mind, in that he tells Antony to "give the gods a thankful 
sacrifice" (I.ii.162), essentially saying that Fulvia's death is a 
good thing. Obviously, someone would never say something like this 
unless they were in very close company. While acting as a friend and 
promoter of Antony, Enobarbus lets the audience in on some of the myth 
and legend surrounding Cleopatra. Probably his biggest role in the 
play is to exaggerate Anthony and Cleopatra's relationship. Which he 
does so well in the following statements:

When she first met Mark Antony, she 
pursed up his heart, upon the river of Cydnus.

The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne,
Burned on the water: the poop was beaten gold;
Purple the sails, and so perfumed that
The winds were lovesick with them; the oars were

And, for his ordinary, pays his heart
For what his eyes eat only.

Age cannot wither her, nor custom stale
Her infinite variety....

     In these passages, Enobarbus turns Antony's and Cleopatra's 
meeting into a fairy tale and leads the audience into believing the
two are inseparable. His speeches in Act II are absolutely vital to 
the play in that this is what Shakespeare wants the audience to view 
Antony and Cleopatra. Also, in these passages, Cleopatra is described 
as irresistible and beautiful beyond belief -- another view that is 
necessary for us to believe in order to buy the fact that a man with 
so much to lose would be willing to risk it all in order to win her 
love. Quite possibly, these passages may hint that Enobarbus is 
himself in love with Cleopatra. After all, it would be hard to come up 
with such flowery language if a person were not inspired. Enobarbus 
may be lamenting his own passions vicariously through the eyes of 
Antony. This would be convenient in questioning Enobarbus' loyalty, 
which becomes very important later on in the play (considering he 
kills himself over grief from fearing he betrayed his leader). The 
loyalty of Enobarbus is indeed questionable. Even though we never hear 
him utter a single disparaging remark against Antony, he does
admit to Menas that he "will praise any man that will praise me" 
(II.iii.88), suggesting that his honor and loyalty may just be
simple brown-nosing. Shakespeare probably fashioned Enobarbus as a 
means of relaying information to the audience that would otherwise be 
difficult or awkward to bring forth from other characters (such as 
Cleopatra's beauty and the story of her betrayal of Caesar), but he 
also uses him as way to inject some levity and humor in the play, 
showing the characters eagerness to have a good time. Evidence of this 
comes in Enobarbus' affinity for drunkenness. In both Act I and Act II 
Enobarbus purports the joys of drink:

Bring in the banquet quickly: wine enough 
Cleopatra's health to drink.

Mine, and most of our fortunes,
tonight, shall be -- drunk to bed.

     He even caps off Act II with a song for Bacchus and a request for 
drunken celebration. In short, Enobarbus is used as any good secondary 
character should be; he relays information between characters, exposes 
other characters and their traits, gives background information, and 
lets the audience in on his surroundings and the general moods and 
beliefs of the times he lived in. He is not just used as a database 
however, through his speeches and his actions we find a fully 
developed person, someone with thoughts, motives, and feelings all his 
own -- a character who can't be summed up in just a few sentences.

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